January 17, 2020 | Jerry Bergman

How Body Organs Evolved (Not)

No Evidence of the Evolution of Body Organs and Organ Components

by Jerry Bergman, PhD

A major area of interest of mine is the problems related to the evolution of human body organs and structures, such as the lungs, bone, blood and organ components in humans. So far, my research has produced four articles on this subject and I am working on several more along the same line. A major problem is that hard parts, such as teeth and the skeleton, commonly fossilize, but tissue traits rarely do. Thus, the claim by evolutionists is that we have no evidence of the evolution of body organs and structures because of the preservation problem, not because the evolution of body organs did not occur. It must have occurred according to the orthodox Darwinian worldview. My contention is the existing evidence shows we have no evidence of the evolution of body organs because it never occurred.

Evidence of No Evolution of Body Organs from Existing Life-Forms

My conclusion that body organs and organ components could not have evolved is based on the fact that the organs of living animals display major gaps in organ and structure design. Furthermore, it has been proven extremely difficult to bridge those gaps with viable functional working systems. In addition, the animal has to survive and reproduce during the transition from, for example, gill to a lung respiratory systems. The organ system, therefore, must have been functional during the entire time of its evolution. This problem is illustrated by the fish bladder evolving into a working lung, which is the current theory of lung evolution.

Sex Cells

For example, to achieve sexually-reproductive life by evolution, mitosis must evolve into meiosis. As any freshman biology class will tell you, a chasm exists between mitosis and meiosis (see illustration). Sexual reproduction requires meiosis that produces haploid cells containing half the normal number of chromosomes, which is 23 in humans. Evolutionists propose that, after eons of time, mutations in the genes that controlled mitosis evolved mitosis into meiosis. The fact is the evolution of meiosis from mitosis is untenable, like the “What good is half-of-a-wing?” problem. Until the evolution from mitosis to meiosis is complete, life cannot reproduce sexually.


Furthermore, life must simultaneously have both systems of cell division to reproduce sexually. Otherwise it could not reproduce, which would end that gene line. Thus, functional mitosis must not mutate in the somatic cell line, but mitosis genes must mutate into meiosis in the gonadic cell line in order to evolve. The organism cannot reproduce until it has a fully functional meiosis system. Mitosis and meiosis are very different. Mitosis is a glorified straight forward copy machine. In contrast, meiosis is a functional ‘creator’ that produces the potential for the enormous variety of individuals, as seen everywhere in most all forms of life today – including humans.[1]

So serious is the problem of evolving meiosis by chance, that evolutionists almost uniformly ignore it. This dismissive approach is unlike that assumed by Zimmer and Emlen who readily admitted in their popular evolution textbook the following: “Given the functional uniqueness of sexual reproduction at even the most primitive level, what we will see over and over throughout this book is that such an assumed gradual process could not, in actual scientific fact, have happened.”[2] I agree.

But, according to evolutionists, it must have happened! Darwinism requires that all early life reproduced by fission (thus mitosis), and later sexual reproduction evolved, requiring meiosis. All life-forms that reproduce sexually require replicators like meiosis. Sexual reproduction is a prime example of a complex adaption for which a large number of replicator substitutions would be required.[3] Furthermore, meiosis requires a host of other innovations, including transposition, imprinting, epigenetics, genetic crossing over, the topoisomerase mechanism and numerous other complex systems. All these must have evolved according to the Darwinian worldview, none of which have been explained by evolution. even by just-so stories.

An Alleged 550 Million-Year-Old Fossilized Digestive Tract

Several new discoveries are changing the problem of a lack of tissue evidence for organ and structural evolution, such as the discovery of insipient soft tissue in dinosaur bones. One of the latest examples is the discovery of what is claimed to be a 550-million-year fossilized digestive tract.[4] The fossilized digestive tract, uncovered in the Nevada desert, was described by its finders as “a key find in understanding the early history of animals on Earth.” The find was an example of a Cloudina fossil, (see illustration) labeled a late Ediacaran tubular fossil known to have existed on almost every continent. They vary in size from 0.3 to 6.5 mm in diameter, and 8 to 150 mm in length. These fossils consist of a series of stacked vase-like calcite tubes.

The original mineral composition of the tube structure is unknown, but it is likely constructed of high-magnesium calcite.[5] Each cone traps a significant pore space beneath it, and stacks eccentrically into the one below like a series of cups. This results in an external ridged appearance in which the long tube design appears to be semi-flexible.

Cloudina (Wiki Commons)

The tube discussed in the study by researchers at University of North Carolina is curved or sinuous, and its tube walls are 8 to 50 mm thick. A detailed three-dimensional reconstruction reveals that the tubes had an open base. The tube is more accurately described as a lumen. Its design may be one reason for the level of preservation found. The evolutionists claim it is a 550 million-year-old digestive tract. Assuming their dating is correct, it implies that tissues should be found in younger fossils, like 100 million and even 200 million Darwin Years.

Another possibility is that 550-million-old fossil is not nearly that old. The method of dating was not detailed in the papers I reviewed, but was largely based on the current orthodox evolutionary scenario. The problematic circular-dating method is indicated here: The life-forms in the rocks are used to date the rocks, and then these rocks are then used to date those same life-forms in them. The evolutionists claim these are the oldest ‘guts’ ever discovered.[6]

The authors did not discuss the fossil as evidence for evolution, partly because the organism discussed is a comparatively simple structure, but as more organisms are studied using this and other related techniques we can expect more complex organisms will be studied and this research will help us determine which view is correct; my view or that of the Darwinists.

Technology Is Critical

One reason for the advancements in soft tissue research is the improvement of a new technology, in this case the technique done in the X-ray Microanalysis lab of Schiffbauer et al., which is called micro-CT imaging. It is able to create digital 3-D images of a fossil’s interior. This technique allows scientists to assess internal features in the lumen of a Cloudina fossil, and then analyze the entire fossil without damaging it.[7]

The three-dimensional image of the internal ‘digestive tract’ of the fossil was limited, but was the first example that showed the internal structure of the Cloudina fossil, potentially showing soft tissue in its remains. It also found that the creature’s anatomical structure is much more worm-like than coral-like. Specifically, the Schiffbauer research team claim they were able to make a “detailed report of internal soft-tissue preservation within cloudinomorph fossils, and, moreover, one of the earliest reports of preserved internal anatomical structures in the fossil record.”[8] Although, as is true of many (if not most) paleontological finds, drawing conclusions especially about soft tissue, are difficult. In the work done by the X-ray Microanalysis lab, Schiffbauer et al, admit there exist

several caveats that should be considered.… First and foremost, some of these features are not uniformly representative across all of the cloudinomorphs—which should serve as a caution toward future attempts to resolve relationships within this morphotypic group. Moreover, at least some of these alleged diagnostic features (or lack thereof) may be taphonomic noise rather than primary biological signal.[9]

“Taphonomic noise” refers to distortions caused by the burial process and, in general, the effects of decay, bioturbation and biomineralization. The authors add another caution, which also is common in paleontological finds when claims about soft tissue are raised, namely “the degree of tube wall biomineralization in addition to the original biomineral chemistry has been met with differing interpretations.”[10] They further add,

To our knowledge, the structures reported herein are not only the first recognizable soft tissues in cloudinomorphs, but also the oldest guts yet described in the fossil record. As such, the Wood Canyon tubular fossil assemblage has provided a unique view into early animal anatomy. Nonetheless, for at least the cautions listed throughout the discussion above, we choose to refrain from shoehorning the cloudinomorphs into any explicit polychaete family. However, it is the sum of their parts—including the external tube structure, internal soft tissues, and presumed behavioral considerations—that may best denote placement amongst the Annelida as the most plausible.[11]

They raise these issues in spite of the fact that cloudinid taxa in general, “including the terminal Ediacaran index fossil Cloudina, are the most well-studied of these Ediacaran tubular forms due to their global palaeogeographical distribution.”[12] Nonetheless, the issue here is that this new technology will ideally help researchers answer some of the questions about the evolution of organs and structures constructed out of tissues that do not normally preserve well in the fossil record, except for bone, teeth and other hard parts.


Micro-CT imaging and related techniques such as functional NMR (fNMR), will no doubt be useful to obtain details of many other biological structures. The cloudinid family is one of the most abundant small shelly fossils with mineralized skeletons in the Precambrian. This protective shell may be one reason why its inner digestive tract tract, if that’s what it representes, was effectively preserved. The next step is to examine the internal structure of other life-forms.

Technological progress, such as the techniques discussed in this paper, promise to open up to examination the internal structure of organ systems remaining in fossils. Thousands of organisms preserved in amber, tar pits and ice, and other methods of tissue preservation may now be evaluated by micro-CT imaging to reveal traits of the internal structure of a wide variety of organisms. This will help open up the door to understanding the changes in organ systems in history, either supporting evolution or not. The Darwinian worldview requires all organs to have evolved from single cells to the complex organ systems observed today in the natural world.

As has repeatedly occurred in the past century, more knowledge has undermined the evolutionary position and supported the creation view. I have been very active in researching two examples. One is the view that 100 useless organs and structures exist in the human body, but which are now all acknowledged to have an important, or at the least, a very useful function.[13] A second example is the claim of poor designs in the human body, which are still touted by some as evidence of evolution. This, too, is now totally refuted by new scientific research. I expect the same result will occur from the study of organ systems.[14]

See also the analysis of the Cloudina fossil by Günter Bechly, “Did cloudinids have the guts to be worms?” at Evolution News.


[1] Smith, LaGard. 2018. Darwin’s Secret Sex Problem: Exposing Evolution’s Fatal Flaw— The Origin of Sex. WestBow Press, Bloomington, IN, p. 94.

[2] Zimmer, C. and D.J. Emlen, 2015. Evolution—Making Sense of Life, W. H. Freeman & Company, New York, NY p. 320.

[3] From Dawkins, R., 1982. The Extended Phenotype, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1982, p. 106.

[4] Scientists find oldest-known fossilized digestive tract — 550 million years. Science News. January 10, 2020. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/01/200110110919.htm.

New book by Dr Bergman addresses back pain and many other alleged cases of poor design in the human body.

[5]  Zhuravlev, A.Y., R. A. Wood, and A. M. Penny, 2015. Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate. Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Science B. p. 282. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rspb.2015.1860.

[6] Stann, Eric. 2020. A gutsy proposition. MU scientists find oldest-known fossilized digestive tract — 550 million years. Mizzou News. University of Missouri, https://news.missouri.edu/2020/a-gutsy-proposition/ January 10.

[7] Scientists, 2020. [Ref. 4]

[8] Schiffbauer, James, Tara Selly, Sarah M. Jacquet, Rachel A. Merz, Lyle L. Nelson, Michael A. Strange, Yaoping Cai, Emily F. Smith. 2020. Discovery of bilaterian-type through-guts in cloudinomorphs from the terminal Ediacaran Period. Nature Communications, 11 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-13882-z.

[9] Schiffbauer, James, 2020.

[10] Schiffbauer, James, 2020.

[11] Schiffbauer, James, 2020 Bold added to original/

[12] Selly, Tera and James Schiffbauer. 2019. A New Cloudinid Fossil Assemblage from the Terminal Ediacaran of Nevada, USA. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 17(13). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14772019.2019.1623333.

[13] Bergman, Jerry. 2019. Useless Organs: The Rise and Fall of the Once Major Argument for Evolution. 2019. Tulsa, OK: Bartlett Publishing.

[14] Bergman, Jerry.2019.  The “Poor Design” Argument Against Intelligent Design Falsified. 2019. Tulsa, OK: Bartlett Publishing.

Dr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology for over 40 years at several colleges and universities including Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. He is a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio, Wayne State University in Detroit, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He has over 1,300 publications in 12 languages and 40 books and monographs. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. For more articles by Dr Bergman, see his Author Profile.

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