Dino Death Flip-Flop
The asteroid theory is coming under fire again.
Some scientists resurrect volcanoes as the killers.
What Killed Dinosaurs and Other Life on Earth? (Dartmouth University, 12 Sept 2022). If you thought the consensus was settled about an asteroid killing the dinosaurs, Brenhin Keller at Dartmouth begs to differ. A large igneous province in India, called the Deccan Traps, lines up with the extinction. Volcanoes, he argues, not only wiped out dinosaurs but caused other mass extinctions before that.
What caused these catastrophes remains a matter of keen scientific debate. Some scientists argue that comets or asteroids that crashed into Earth were the most likely agents of mass destruction, while others point fingers at large volcanic eruptions.
Assistant Professor of Earth Sciences Brenhin Keller belongs to the latter camp. In a new study published in PNAS, Keller and his co-authors make a strong case for volcanic activity being the key driver of mass extinctions. Their study provides the most compelling quantitative evidence so far that the link between major volcanic eruptions and wholesale species turnover is not simply a matter of chance.
But what about the Chicxulub impact crater in the Yucatan? Isn’t that the smoking gun that proved the asteroid impact theory? Keller is not convinced.
On the other hand, the researchers say, the theories in favor of annihilation by asteroid impact hinge upon the Chicxulub impactor, a space rock that crash-landed into Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula around the same time that the dinosaurs went extinct.
“All other theories that attempted to explain what killed the dinosaurs got steamrolled when the crater the asteroid had gouged out was discovered,” says Keller. But there’s very little evidence of similar impact events that coincide with the other mass extinctions despite decades of exploration, he points out.
So if other extinctions were not caused by impacts, Keller argues, why link the end-Cretaceous extinction to an impact? He is willing, however, to consider the Chicxulub impact as a final blow to what volcanoes were already doing.
The researchers ran the numbers for asteroids too. The coincidence of impacts with periods of species turnover was significantly weaker, and only worsened when the Chicxulub impactor was not considered.
The eruption rate of the Deccan Traps in India suggests that the stage was set for widespread extinction even without the asteroid, says Green. The impact was the double whammy that loudly sounded the death knell for the dinosaurs, he adds.
Again, though, neither theory explains why delicate butterflies, worms, small mammals and birds did just fine through the event(s).
When did dinosaurs go extinct? The theories on how it happened and what survived. (USA Today, 16 Sept 2022). USA Today shows its complete gullibility to evolutionary long-age science in this short piece (“In fact, birds are dinosaurs”), cluttered with ads and clickbait. Reporter Evan Hecht considers both the asteroid theory and the volcano theory as possibilities. See how many evolutionary deep-time assumptions Hecht can fit into his story:
The other theory is massive amounts of lava flow from India, known as the Deccan Traps, occurred around the same 66 million years ago timeline. According to National Geographic, the eruption resulted in volcanic rock covering 200,000 square miles in layers that are up to 6,000 feet thick. It’s believed this eruption could have been powerful enough to fill the air with dangerous amounts of carbon dioxide and other gasses, drastically altering the Earth’s climate.
Other Extinct Creatures
Smithsonian Researchers Discover Extinct Prehistoric Reptile That Lived Among Dinosaurs (Smithsonian, 15 Sept 2022). A tuatara-like creature is featured in the opening artwork of this news release. “Discovery Sheds Light on the Tuatara, the Last Living Member of a Once-Diverse Group of Reptiles That Has Almost Entirely Been Supplanted by Lizards.”
“What’s important about the tuatara is that it represents this enormous evolutionary story that we are lucky enough to catch in what is likely its closing act,” Carrano said. “Even though it looks like a relatively simple lizard, it embodies an entire evolutionary epic going back more than 200 million years.”
The tuatara, however, is a famous living fossil. It was thought to have gone extinct with the dinosaurs, but was found alive and well in New Zealand. The article mentions that the tuatara is the fossil’s “only surviving relative” but fails to mention its fame as a “Lazarus taxon,” a creature thought to have died out millions of years ago but still living.
The tuatara looks a bit like a particularly stout iguana, but the tuatara and its newly discovered relative are in fact not lizards at all. They are actually rhynchocephalians, an order that diverged from lizards at least 230 million years ago, Carrano said.
Why are there no fossils at all of rhynchocephalians between 150 million Darwin Years ago and now? How can the Smithsonian mention the tuatara without this embarrassing fact that calls evolution and deep time into question?
Given Opisthiamimus’s diminutive size, tooth shape and rigid skull, it likely ate insects, said DeMar, adding that prey with harder shells such as beetles or water bugs might have also been on the menu. Broadly speaking, the new species looks quite a bit like a miniaturized version of its only surviving relative (tuataras are about five times longer).
A fossil baby helped scientists explain how mammals thrived after the dinosaur extinction – new research (The Conversation, 15 Sept 2022). Look at the cute artwork of Pantolambda, a furry extinct mammal that looks like a pet. Why did mammals like it survive whatever killed the dinosaurs? Carbon dioxide from volcanoes and heat from asteroids are general-purpose killers. Why the mighty dinosaurs of all sizes, from sauropods to chicken-sized runners perished but not fuzzy mammals makes no sense.
The article says that this cute little fur ball evolved “after” the dinosaur extinction, but other paleontologists have shown that mammals like it were around when the dinosaurs first walked on the scene. Patrick Pester said so on Live Science on 8 September: “Mammals lived alongside some of the earliest dinosaurs, controversial study claims.” It’s only controversial because mammals shouldn’t go that far back. That gave them 150 million Darwin Years of existence alongside dinosaurs, and another 66 million after the extinction to become hippos, rats, whales, giraffes, and people.
What ended the dinosaurs? Intelligent design.
A flood buried most of them. Impacts and volcanoes might have contributed to the onset of the flood (the timing being determined by God, whose intent was to start the land ecosystems over and judge a violent humanity), but those animals preserved on the ark came out to repopulate the earth. Centuries of migration, some of it possibly assisted by humans, allowed some “living fossil” types to thrive in isolated spots ideal for them, called refugia. Human populations, as they grew, would have eliminated some species that were nuisances, like any remaining dinosaurs. That’s why we find some carvings and inscriptions of dinosaur “dragons” after the flood, along with numerous dragon legends.
Since materialist theories based on the Stuff Happens Law face numerous controversies and contradictions, this explanation should be given credence, because it explains numerous features around the earth. It also fits what intelligent minds do.